Health and medicine

Vitamins – what is worth knowing about them?

Vitamins – what is worth knowing about them?
It takes approx. 4 minutes to read this article

Individual vitamins have important functions in the human body, and their deficiency can adversely affect health. Some of them are synthesized by the body, while others must be supplied from the outside with food. Sometimes it is necessary to supplement them. What is worth knowing about vitamins?

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 is primarily responsible for bone mineralization and proper development of the skeletal system. It also influences the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. In addition, it also improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system and heart muscle

Vitamin D3 deficiency occurs when the diet is poor in foods that contain it and when a person does not regularly go out in the fresh air. A deficiency manifests itself:

  • periodontal disease,
  • bone and muscle pain,
  • diarrhea,
  • insomnia,
  • loss of appetite,
  • visual disturbances,
  • burning in the throat and mouth.

The richest sources of vitamin D3 are: herring, eel, tuna, sardines, wild salmon, mackerel, butter. Considerable amounts are also found in egg yolk, yellow cheese and fish. In turn, the sun provides the energy to create vitamin D3 in the body.

B vitamins

B vitamins are mostly not stored in the body. Therefore, they must be systematically supplied from the outside. The most important B vitamins are:

  • vitamin B1 – thiamine,
  • vitamin B3, or PP,
  • vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid,
  • vitamin B6 – pyridoxine,
  • vitamin B9 – folic acid,
  • vitamin B12 – cobalamin.

All B vitamins are water-soluble, and any excess is excreted in the urine. Except for vitamin B12, they are not stored in the body. However, it should be remembered that the processing of meals and long cooking reduces the vitamin content in them. Absorption is also much lower when large amounts of alcohol are consumed

B vitamins are necessary in particular for the utilization of energy from food, the proper functioning of the nervous system and the production of red blood cells, as well as for keeping the skin and mucous membranes in good condition. They can be found in eggs, beans, fish, poultry, dairy products, soy milk, spinach, nuts and seeds, and oatmeal.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C has several important functions in the body, including:

  • is essential for collagen synthesis,
  • facilitates iron absorption,
  • accelerates the healing of wounds,
  • has a beneficial effect on the psyche,
  • is an activator of many different enzymes,
  • fights the bacteria that cause tooth decay and strengthens gums and teeth.
  • Vitamin C is also a very strong antioxidant, so it reduces free radicals that accelerate the aging process.

Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency:

  • swelling and pain in the joints,
  • weakened blood vessels,
  • long wound healing,
  • abnormal bone fusion after a fracture,
  • weakened immune system,
  • scurvy, a disease characterized by bleeding and ulceration of the gums and loss of teeth,
  • dry skin,
  • accelerated aging of the skin.

The best sources of vitamin C are acerola, citrus fruits, wild rose, tomatoes, kiwi, strawberries, black currant, papaya.

Photo PhotobyTawat/Adobe Stock

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a key role in vision, regulates the growth of epithelial tissue and other cells in the body. Moreover, it shows anti-cancer effects and protects the epithelium of the respiratory system from microorganisms. In addition, it strengthens the immune system, keeps the skin in good condition and helps to fight bacteria and viruses

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include:

  • poorer vision after dusk,
  • increased brittleness and hair loss,
  • chapped skin and rashes,
  • increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections,
  • pimples and acne,
  • a tendency to diarrhea,
  • stunted growth.

Good sources of vitamin A include milk, butter, animal offal, spinach, eggs, kale, pumpkin, carrots, tomatoes, red peppers, and lettuce.

Photo by Praewpan/Adobe Stock

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